(section: 2 / paragraph: d / line: 1)
Batteries used for non-propulsion purposes would not count toward the maximum number of batteries in 2.c. Anything contributing to controlling the motor would be considered to be contributing to propulsion.
(section: 2 / paragraph: d / line: 2)
Yes, as long as the capacitors are discharged before the run and any electrical power in the capacitor after the discharge comes from the allowed batteries/cells, then they are allowed.
(section: 2 / paragraph: e / line: 2)
Yes, encoders are allowed.
(section: 4 / line: para.4)
(section: 4 / paragraph: a / line: 2)
Yes, provided the computer only connects to the vehicle between runs and not during the run, it is considered a tool.
(section: 4 / paragraph: h / line: 19)
Yes, laser pointers are always to be controlled by human operators (see the general SO policy on lasers at https://www.soinc.org/lasers ) and the vehicle must run autonomously, so laser pointers must not be used during a run.