(section: 2 / paragraph: d / line: 2)
Yes, as long as the capacitors are discharged before the run and any electrical power in the capacitor after the discharge comes from the allowed batteries/cells, then they are allowed.
(section: 2 / paragraph: e / line: 2)
Yes, encoders are allowed.
(section: 4 / line: para.4)
(section: 4 / paragraph: h / line: 19)
Yes, laser pointers are always to be controlled by human operators (see the general SO policy on lasers at https://www.soinc.org/lasers ) and the vehicle must run autonomously, so laser pointers must not be used during a run.